Taking into account opportunity costs when assessing costs of biodiversity and ecosystem action

The study provides an estimate the costs of biodiversity action in the EU with special consideration of opportunity costs.

More specifically, the study identifies the types of costs associated with biodiversity policy in the EU, reviews the available literature to identify and assess gaps in the cost analysis, provides a pilot estimate of the total economic costs of biodiversity policy - including opportunity costs - in the EU. It also includes advice on how methodologies could be improved to better estimate all types of economic costs.