The EU Waste Shipment Regulation presents many challenges for the Member States and implementation in some cases is poor, resulting in illegal waste causing health and environmental problems in third countries (e.g. West Africa and China). The report written for DG Environment reviews the inspection requirements of the Regulation, noting the importance of different types and locations of inspections and the need for co-operation between authorities within and between Member States. In most Member States a number of authorities are involved (environmental inspectorates, Customs, police, etc.) and these can, variously, be established at national, regional and local level. Co-operation is, therefore, a challenge and a number of best practices to address this are described. The capacity of inspectorates responsible for the Regulation varies, with a number indicating that capacity is well below what is required. The processes for inspection also vary, with significant differences justified according to different Member State circumstances, while some others show poor levels of inspection activity. The report concludes with a number of criteria which could be used to stimulate discussion and it is for the EU institutions to consider how they should be taken forward.